The Idea of the Muslim World
Cemil Aydin, Central, 909.09767 A975i 2017
Before 1800, Muslim solidarity was impotent. Muslim rulers in India, Africa, the Middle East, and elsewhere made treaties and allegances for political gain, not shared religion. pan-Islamism emerged as a reaction to Russian pan-Slavism in the Balkans in the 1880s, and anti-Islam statements by Gladstone supporting Balkan secession. Mostly racism and the reaction to racism.
I did not have time to finish this book. The impression I get is that Islam, like Christianity and Hinduism, is corrupted by mixture with politics.